Forbes magazine regularly publishes lists of the richest people of our time. However, they are not absolute record-holders in savings.
Richest People in History
In this article, the richest people in the world in history, with a recalculation of their condition on the current course.
1. Mansa Musa
The ruler of the Mali empire in the Middle Ages managed to save more than $400 billion for his life. Musa was born in 1280, and in 1312 became king. His fortune was made by reselling livestock, skins and salt. In addition, he created one of the largest gold mining companies in history.
The king loved luxury, so his throne was overtaken by ivory, and the opax were silk umbrellas. In 1324 Mansa Musa went on a pilgrimage to Mecca. The ruler was accompanied by 60,000 servants, several hundred slaves and dozens of camel caravans laden with jewels.
Legends say that his generosity to the poor along the way provoked a financial crisis in Europe: Musa distributed 12.5 tons of gold, collapsing the market for precious metals.
Mansa returned to his homeland a year later, and was no longer the richest man: he got into debt and was deceived by the Egyptians. But acquaintances with European scientists and people of art helped him to strengthen mali’s influence and make the country a center of culture.
Musa died in 1337, almost immediately his descendants washed the royal inheritance. Mansa’s son renounced Islam and marked a new era of the country’s development, associated with a return to paganism.
2. John Davison Rockefeller
“Father of the Oil World,” Rockefeller Sr. became the first dollar billionaire in history. He was born in 1839, worked and postponed from the age of 7 (put in a piggy bank money, which he received for work in a neighbor’s vegetable garden). At the age of 13 he gave farmers in debt at interest, and at the age of 20 he opened a trading company, borrowing money from his father (also with interest).
In 1863, John made the first oil distillation plant, the rest of the plants ran together with his brother William. By 1880, Rockefeller controlled 90% of U.S. oil production. The entrepreneur donated a lot to charity, supported medical research and Baptist churches.
Rockefeller died in 1937. He left behind 16 railway companies, six steel mills, nine real estate businesses and several other steamship companies, orange farms and banks. John Davison’s capital was $320-400 billion.
3. Andrew Carnegie
A steel tycoon and a major industrial businessman of the 20th century. Born into a poor family in Scotland in 1835. He got his first job in the United States. He became a “bobbin watcher” at a weaving factory for $10 a month. In 1853 he got a job in a railway company and quickly grew to be a manager.
Carnegie has invested a lot. At the age of 20, he left his mother’s house on bail and bought shares in the railway company for $500. In 1889 he opened a steel business and became a dollar billionaire. He also founded Carnegie Mellon University. Andrew’s fortune at the time of his death in 1919 was $310-370 billion.
4. Nicholas II
Nikolai was born in 1868 and grew up in a religious family. After inheriting the throne at the age of 26, he married. He had four daughters and a son, with whom he was arrested during the 1917 revolution. A year later Nicholas II and his family were shot in Yekaterinburg. There are versions that part of the imperial money still lies on secret accounts in Germany and France.
According to various estimates, the last ruler of the Russian Empire had $255-300 billion. All the fortune (including silver, gold and royal flotilla) Nicholas II inherited from another representative of the Romanov family and his father – Alexander III. Half went to charity (especially during the First World War), the maintenance of hospitals, palaces and relatives.
5. William Henry Vanderbilt
William Vanderbilt is not inferior to his father Cornelius, although he had 13 children. The businessman was born in 1821 and was brought up in harsh conditions. His father sent William to the farm because of incompetence in the management of family affairs. But the economy went uphill, Vanderbilt Jr.’s leadership qualities were seen.
In the 1840s. reorganizing the Long Island Railroad. In 1877, the rail company completely left to his son after Cornelius’s death. William Henry himself died in 1885. However, in a short period of time he managed to double the family inheritance: his fortune is estimated at $240 billion.
6. Osman Ali Khan, Asaf Jah VII
Osman Ali Khan was the ruler of the principality of Hyderabad and Berar (Indian territory) in the first half of the 20th century. During his 37 years in power, he built a reservoir in the country, launched electricity, air and rail services.
Osman made a fortune through the diamond trade, being a global monopoly on the market. In the 1940s. he was the richest man on the planet. He had a large collection of Rolls-Royce, and during the Second World War gave the Royal Navy and Australia several destroyers. He died in 1967. He is survived by seven wives, 40 concubines and a fortune of $230 billion.
7. Henry Ford
The capital of this 19th-century American industrialist is estimated at $185-199 billion. Ford was born in 1863 to migrant farmers. At the age of 16 he ran away from home and became an assistant machinist in Detroit, serving steam engines.
In 1891 he took up a position as an engineer at edison’s Electric Company. At the same time he completed the development of his horseless crew, which he nicknamed the Ford Quad bike, and even earlier – assembled a car.
In 1903 he founded a car company. First it was ford A cars, and since 1908 – Ford T models, which brought Henry worldwide fame. This is the third attempt to create a business: the first companies in which Ford was a co-owner, either went bankrupt or left after conflict partners. The entrepreneur was not stopped by the failures.
Ford made an industrial revolution. He developed a car conveyor belt, and paid workers unthinkable money at that time – $5 a day. Henry died in 1947 from a brain hemorrhage, but his car brand has been working successfully ever since.
8. Andrew William Mellon
The American banker’s fortune at the time of his death was $188 billion. Mellon lived a long time. He was a businessman, industrialist, U.S. Treasury Secretary and U.S. Ambassador to England.
Born in 1855 in Pittsburgh and worked since the age of 20 in a family banking company. In 1882, the business was inherited by him. Mellon began funding corporations in refining, metal manufacturing and shipbuilding.
In the 1920s. Andrew Mellon was considered America’s richest man. He managed to live to the age of 82.
9. Mark Licinius Crassus
A general in ancient Rome who lived between 115 and 153. BC He had about $170 billion. Hardworking, conceited, stingy – despite his complex nature, Crassus transformed Rome from a humble Republic into an Empire. This general suppressed the rebellion of Spartacus.
He was born into a wealthy family, so he did not have any needs since childhood. The condition was built at the expense of a particular business: bought at a low price the houses of people affected by military fires or got into the script (lists declaring citizens outside the law), and then resold them.
He was engaged in the purchase and sale of slaves who worked in the silver mines of his family. There are suggestions that Mark Licinius himself set fire to houses, and his slaves specially taught fire skills. The greed and cruelty of Crassus played a cruel joke with him: the commander was executed and poured into his mouth molten gold.
10. Cornelius Vanderbilt
This 19th-century American businessman had more than $165 billion. Cornelius was born in 1794 in a modest farming family, but at the age of 11 he found his first job, leaving school for the sake of it.
Working on the ferry, Vanderbilt borrowed $100 from his mother and at the age of 16 founded an independent business to ferry people on barges. A year later he earned $1,000, which he proudly returned to his family.
By the age of 18, Cornelius had contracted the U.S. government to deliver cargo during the war between Britain and the United States. When the war was over, Vanderbilt contained a flotilla and switched to organizing a rail business. In 1846 he became a millionaire. Vanderbilt died of natural causes in 1877, when he was 83.
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